Coinage of the term Open Innovation (OI) Chesbrough (2003), sparked new interest in the subject, which refers not only to the internalization of knowledge, ideas and technology, but also for externalizing technologies that would not be used otherwise.
One of the phenomena that shed light onto the importance of OI relates to the strong competition that large multinational companies face nowadays, which are generated by new entrants with fewer resources and more flexibility, placing new ideas on the market by differentiated processes, and allowing OI developments to occur more naturally.
In a research carried out by Mortara et al (2009) in 16 large companies, it has been identified that the two main facilitators for the implementation of OI are related to the company culture (support of higher management and the creation of OI culture); the undertaking of adequate structural changes, a factor that is related to the process, appears in third place.
In the same study it was identified that the main barrier also refers to internal cultural issues, which demonstrates the strength of the organizational culture in the success or failure of when implementing OI in the company.
This paper analyses three case firms whose innovation management processes have been consolidated.
The catalysing process of innovation that relies on collaboration from external organizations is a subject that has been widely explored in the literature.Figure 1 shows the processes (i) Outside-in (ideas and technology, license-in, acquisition of products, coranding), relating to the internalization of knowledge and related resources; and (ii) Inside-out (license-out, offering technology to the market, spin outs), related to the transfer of knowledge and R&D results for external commercialization.When both processes are carried out by the company, involving additional resource sharing among partners, the process is then called Coupled process (GASSMANN; Enkel, 2006, In Rohrbeck; Holzle; Gemünden, 2009).This model, whose term Open Innovation was coined by Chesbrough (2003), claims that "the company commercializes both its internal ideas and external ones from other companies, and search for ways to put their ideas on the market through the development of different routes that are not part of its usual business" (CHESBROUGH, 2003, p. Figure 1 shows the open innovation model and its three stages: research, development and commercialization.It has been observed that the innovation funnel, from the generation of ideas to the commercialization of products/technologies in the market, is represented by dashed lines, indicating that boundaries are permeable.